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Williams wrote that Imprimis is "Hillsdale's way of sharing the ideas of the many distinguished speakers invited to their campus. And, I might add, Hillsdale College is one of the few colleges where students get a true liberal arts education, absent the nonsense seen on many campuses. In contrast, Mark W. Powell, writing in the Toledo Blade , criticized Imprimis for eschewing fact-checking and failing to issue editorial corrections , which he described as part of a pattern of "cavalierism with facts to drive political points.
Williamson at National Review has countered that speech transcripts ordinarily aren't fact-checked or verified for the truth of their claims.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Imprimis an adverb used to introduce a list of items or considerations or Imprimis Pharmaceuticals , Inc. Retrieved Williams Hillsdale Collegian.
Archived from the original on The Washington Post. The New York Times. Tabor Hillsdale College. Powell The Toledo Blade. Index Section 1: Immunization Policy in India 1. Immunization Policy — History behind the programme 1 1. India Immunization Status 3 1. Vaccine market and policy framework 13 2. Vaccine market 13 2. Introduction of new vaccine — Decision Making Process 14 2.
Conclusion 24 Section 3: Appendix and Reference sources 3. Appendix 3: India reported immunization coverage 29 3. Executive Summary Immunizing children against vaccine-preventable diseases is a crucial instrument in saving lives, increasing productivity, and alleviating poverty. It is in this context that Imprimis Research and Advocacy has undertaken this study. We have begun with the literature review to understand the scope, development span, and role of the government and the current status for the success of the Indian Immunization Programme. Section 1 helps in understanding the launch of the Immunization Programme in India.
We have examined the history behind the programme, thereby highlighting the growth trajectory and current coverage status of the immunization programme. The study discusses the role of central and state governments in a successful campaign. We have done a review of existing studies to understand the determining factor affecting Immunization via use of regression model.
Through this section we have done the ground analysis and presented the core literature in a nutshell. Section 2 Vaccination policy, framework and authorities at work are crucial pivots in Indian Immunization Programme. We scrutinized decision making process necessary for introduction of a new vaccine in the immunization programme. There are challenges and obstacles that need to be taken care of by the policy managers and makers. The study presented the conclusion and strategic action points to reach the desired goal of UIP in India. Section 3 supports the data points and provides extra information related to the subject.
Immunization Policy: History behind the programme Immunization — Definition Immunization programme is one of the essential interventions for protection of children from life-threatening diseases that are preventable. In India, under the Universal Immunization Programme, vaccines for six vaccine-preventable diseases tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis or whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles are available free of cost for all.
More than 90 million pregnant women and 83 million infants were to be immunized over a five-year period under the UIP Sokhey The programme was given the status of a National Technology Mission in GoI to provide a sense of urgency and commitment to achieve the goals within the specified period. The standard immunization schedule developed for the child immunization programme specifies the age at which each vaccine is to be administered and the number of doses to be given. Universal childhood immunization has been accepted by world public health leaders and stakeholders as both an affordable and cost effective strategy for promoting primary healthcare and for child survival.
Years mentioned represent First and Second Five-Year Plans respectively Minimum Needs Programme with a focus on maternal health, child health, and nutrition services was integrated with family planning services. For NFHS-1, survey teams interviewed 89, ever-married women between the ages of 13 and For NFHS-2, teams interviewed, 92, ever-married women age For NFHS- 3, , married and unmarried women age were interviewed, as well as 74, men age Survey responses provide information on fertility, mortality, family planning, and important aspects of nutrition, health, and health care.
Its special focus was on 18 States3 with weak public health indicators. Source: Compilation by Imprimis Research 1. India Immunization Status The Universal Immunization Programme in India is among the largest immunization programmes in the world, targeting 27 million infants and 30 million pregnant women as indicated by National Vaccine Policy Under the UIP, vaccines are available free of cost for all for six vaccine-preventable diseases — tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis whooping cough , tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles.
In , WHO estimated that 1. This pledge became the eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by These goals are mentioned in the chart above. In September , the world recommitted itself to accelerate progress towards these goals. It prevents debilitating illness and disability, and saves millions of lives every year.
It is also key to achieving the MDGs — commitments made by world leaders in to reduce poverty and improve human development. The contribution of immunization is especially critical to achieving the goal to reduce deaths among children under five years old MDG 4.
The realization of the MDGs goals in India is vital for attaining human development and economic growth within the country. To develop and implement effective strategies for improving immunization coverage, it is crucial that appropriate and accurate information about immunization coverage levels among all children and selected group, status and quality of immunization services, and bottlenecks to improving coverage levels are available.
To ensure data availability, UNICEF organized a coverage evaluation survey in CES to assess the utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services including immunization.
The Coverage Evaluation Survey -- a nationwide survey covering all the States and Union Territories of India and was conducted at the request of the Government of India. The coverage of immunization was higher in urban areas A region wise coverage is presented in the figure 4. This is an area of concern and issues need to be addressed to improve UIP programme performance. Section1:ImmunizationPolicyinIndia Indian Immunization Programme A Literature Review 7 Mass immunization for protection from infectious diseases is one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine and its benefits have been eloquently set out.
Political and leadership factors also play roles in the success of vaccination programmes.
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Now almost one and half years later, the policy document is a crucial reference guide for the adoption of new vaccines and formulating vaccine strategies in India. Role of Centre and State Governments in Healthcare Financing Health is a concurrent subject under the Indian constitution, but state governments are predominantly responsible for most health provisions, both curative and public health aspects.
In addition to direct central government spending on specific budget items, however, there is a range of centrally mandated expenditures that are also effectively spent by state governments, as well as some joint spending6. GOI allocations for individual states are based on a weightage system, where states with the poorest health indicators get a larger share of the allocations.
The central sponsored programmes have been one key policy initiative of the Government of India to support the health sector programmes directly. The Centre provides direct and partial matching grant support to the states in meeting both recurring and non-recurring expenditure of programmes under this policy initiative8.
This is also a reflection of the fact that state governments are going through serious fiscal problems. The role of central support in state budgetary allocations is increasing. Still in comparison to public expenditure, the private expenditure on healthcare is increasing. This is much faster than the states, where the increase was from 0. This pattern also holds good for health-related expenditure. Source: Eleventh Five Year Plan The total allocation of plan and non-plan resources for health for the Centre and the states combined remains low compared to the target of taking it to 2—3 per cent of GDP.
A very strong effort will be needed in the last year of the Eleventh Plan i. Despite efforts to increase public spending after including the adoption of National Rural Health Mission NRHM , the expenditure increased only marginally to 1. His immunization coverage model is used in this study to describe the effects of the select background variables on immunization coverage.
It also affects mortality and fertility inversely. Majority of first-order births occur to younger women who are more likely than older women to utilize maternal and child healthcare services. The likelihood of being fully immunized is higher for children from Christian and other minority communities and lower for children from the Muslim community compared to their counterparts from Hindu households. Sex of Household Head - Sex of household headship affects immunization mainly through other predictor variables correlated with sex of household headship.
The immunization rate varies widely across different zones as well as within the same zone. Source: Compilation by Imprimis Research, Review of Nilanjan Patra study The study analyses the effects of some select demographic and socioeconomic predictor variables on the chance of immunization of a child.
It focuses on immunization coverage for children a across entire India, b in rural and urban areas in India, c for DPT, Polio and partial immunization for all India, d for groups of states, namely, North- eastern and other states, and e for three states namely, Bihar, Tamilnadu two extremes in immunization coverage performance and West Bengal national average.
Vaccine Market and Policy Framework 2. The political will and governmental support for improving public health must be in place to make vaccination work. Oftentimes, the participation of international bodies, non-governmental organizations and other country specific agencies are critical to success. The infrastructure to support disease surveillance and vaccine delivery is essential. The mission of the WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research IVR is to guide, provide vision, enable, support, and facilitate the development, clinical evaluation and world-wide access to safe, effective and affordable vaccines against infectious diseases of public health importance, especially in developing countries.
Gates Foundation and Rotary International Non-governmental organizations provide important knowledge and credibility in addition to crucial financial support. GlobalAllianceforVaccines and Immunization GAVI Alliance launched in Role is to ensure that new and underused vaccines are available to low-income countries at an affordable price and within a shorter time period; and then those countries are prepared and equipped to deliver them.
Global Immunization Vision and Strategy GIVS launched in GIVS is the first ever ten-year framework aimed at controlling morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases and helping countries to immunize more people, from infants to seniors, with a greater range of vaccines. Till recently, both public and private sector vaccine producers were supplying vaccines to UIP.
The Indian domestic market for UIP alone is million doses; and therefore has considerable bearing on global vaccine pricing.
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There are both central and state licensing authorities. The state licensing authority inspects and grants licensing for retail. A rational decision on a vaccine requires information on: disease burden; vaccine safety and effectiveness; vaccine cost; and net impact on immunization programme as well as health sector. Table 7: A framework for decision-making on new vaccines: set of questions 1. Is the disease a public health problem?
Is immunization the best control strategy for this disease?